In This You Will Learn
Glossary of printmaking terms
Woodcut printmaking work and techniques Woodcut the oldest technique used in fine art printmaking is a form of relief printing. The artist’s design or drawing is made on a piece of wood (usually beechwood), and the untouched areas are then cut away with gouges, leaving the raised image which is then inked The best wood to use a beginner is birch playwood.it is cheap but still has a nice surface to work with Relief printing in art printmaking a process consisting of cutting or etching a printing surface in such way.
1. Turn your drawing face down onto the wood you want to carve. Take your burnisher or bone fold and firmly rub the back of the drawing. 2. Carefully lift up a corner of your paper to check that your image is completely transferred. 3. Go over the illustration with a pen so it’s easier to see.
Relief method of printing Relief printing in art printmaking a process consisting of cutting or etching printing surface in such a way that all that remains of the original surface is the design to be printed.The remaining areas of the original surface receive the ink. The relief family of techniques includes woodcut, metalcut, wood engraving, relief etching, linocut, foam printing and some types of collagraph.
Woodcut soon became a popular medium for the mass distribution of religious and instructive imagery in Europe.woodcuts were developed in Japan to an exceptional level of artistic achievement.
See examples of woodcut printmaking
Woodcut printmaking tools
-Pencils, pens, ruler and eraser.
-Lino cutting sets consisting of a plastic or wooden handle with cheap replaceable blades that you throw away when blunt
There’s so much you can do with woodblock prints of course block printing can also be done using linoleum or rubber, but it also jest as easy to use wood scraps you have around the house or pick up at the hardware store.
Engraving Like etching and aquatint engraving is an intaglio technique. Intaglio refers to all printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface and the incised line or sunken area holds the ink.the art of forming designs by cutting, corrosion by acids a photographic process etc.
On the surface of a metal plate, block of wood, or the like, for or as for the purpose of taking off impressions or prints of the design so formed.
An original print is a work of art created by hand and printed by hand, either by the artist or by a professional assistant (often called an artisan), from a plate, block, stone, or stencil that has been hand created by the artist for the sole purpose of producing the desired image.
Engraving, technique of making prints from metal plates into which a design has been incised with a cutting tool called a burin. Modern examples are almost invariably made from copper plates, and, hence, the process is also called copperplate engraving.
Personalize your metal, glass and stone valuables with the Dremel Electric Engraver Tool. It comes supplied with a carbide point tip and template to help you engrave letters and numbers. A stroke-adjustment dial regulates the engraving depth from fine lines to deep grooves for a custom look.
Mean by engraving
Definition of engraving.
1 : The act or process of one that engraves.
2 : something that is engraved such as
a: An engraved printing surface.
b : Engraved work.
Below are just some of the metals that can be laser engraved using a fiber laser:
- Aluminium and aluminium alloys.
- Mild or carbon steel.
- Stainless steel.
- Other types of steel such as corten or galvanised steel
An engraver is an artist that etches specific designs, words, and even images onto different types of materials. They can work on glass, metal, stone, wood and other materials, and can also engrave and create custom plates made of metal or wood that can be used for stamping images on paper.
see example of engraving
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio (incised) in the metal.In traditional pure etching, a metal (usually copper, zinc or steel) plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid.
The artist creates the composition by drawing through the ground with a stylus to expose the metal. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath which “bites” or chemically dissolves the metal in the exposed lines It is then covered with a sheet of dampened paper and run through a press, which not only transfers the ink but forces the paper into the lines, resulting in the raised character of the lines on the impression. Etched lines usually have blunt rather than tapering ends.
An artist can choose either to work with a hard ground or a soft ground. In hard ground etching, the artist draws directly onto a hard, waxy surface that resists the mark-making process, allowing the result to be very much like drawing. In soft ground etching, the artist draws instead on a piece of paper that covers a soft wax coating on the plate. When the paper is lifted, it removes the wax where the pencil pressed. Lines in a soft ground etching are often more fuzzy at the edges, like crayon lines. An artist can also use the waxy soft ground to make imprints of other things besides a pencil, like leaves or lace.
See example of ETCHING
Lithography painting process that makes use of the immiscibility of grease and water.In the lithography process ink is applied to grease treated image on the flat printing surface.
This method of printing originally based on the miscibility of oil and water.The printing id form a store or a metal plate with a smooth surface.
Step by step stone lithography
1-Graining the stone
Once a stone has been printed from for the last time.It is necessary to re-grain the stone to remove the grasery image chemically processed top layer from the stone exposing the fresh unprocessed stone.
‘’Firstly’’Oil patch cleaner is applied to the stone left on for no more than half an hour and then scrubbed thoroughly with a scourer.Three grades of carborundum grit are then used coarse,medium and fine.coarse is used first to grain the majority of the image off.
The stone is placed is a sprinkled on along with some ‘’vim’’and a small piece of litho stone is used to rub over the surface of the stone in figure of-eight motion
2-Drawing on the stone
There are a range of materials which can be used to draw and paint onto the stone surface all of which contain grease which absorbs into the top layer of the stone.
Example of which are lithographic crayons,rubbing block ranging from hard to soft and lithographic tusche,grease Suspended in water.
Once processed it is the drawn areas which will paint.
When the drawing is finished it is then dusted with french chalk,This help to protect it during processing.
3-Processing the stone
The way in which the stone processed depends entirely on the materials used to make the drawing and the amount of grease in the stone.
The stone is processed using arabic gum,Sometime with a very small amount of nitric acid added.
The purpose of the gum is to chemically separate the image and the non-image areas.So that the greasy image areas become water repellent or hydrophobic and the non -image areas become water receptive hydrophilic,so that when printed only the image areas receive the ink and pint.
The chemical change happens in the very top layer of the and creates the gum adsorb layer which is less than 1mm thick.
4-Washing out and rolling up
This step remove the drawing materials from the stone and replaces it with non drying black ink.
First the stone is re-gummed with plain gum,buffed down to a thin layer and dried this helps to re-establish the image and non image areas and thin the gum alyer to ensure enough of the drawing material is removed pure turpentine is thin sprinkled and rubbed over the surface of stone.
The excess turps is wiped off with a cloth and than wet rag is used to remove the the arabic gum from the first etch.A damp cloth is wiped over the stone in order to remove the excess water but keep the stone surface damp.
Non-drying black ink is then rolled onto the stone using a nap roller,until the image in the stone is clearly visible re-damping the stone between rolls to keep the surface from drying out.
5-Printing the stone
When taking the first proofs from the stone t is important to remember that the image will not print to its full potential until at least the 12 print.The drawing will begin to show up after multiple linking so only after the stone has been thoroughly proofed is possible to get a true idea of how the image print.
First the stone is washing out and rolled up as before the stone is gummed and dried then washed out with turps and then the gum washed off. When the stone is damp greasy printing ink is rolled on using either a rap or a glazed roller,
The first few proofs are usually taken onto newsprint and after that damp paper is usually used to ensure that maximum amount of detail is picked up from the stone.
The stone and a paper are then rolled through the direct transfer press and then paper is the stone to reveal the printed image.
Introduction : screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except the areas which are sealed for the ink by a blocking stencil. A knife is used to spread the ink across the screen to fill the open mesh holes with ink, and a reverse stroke then causes the screen to touch the substrate momentarily along a line of contact. This causes the ink to wet the substrate and be pulled out of the mesh apertures as the screen springs back after the blade has passed. One color is printed at a time. We can use several screens to produce a multicoloured images or designs we want There are various terms used for what is essentially the same technique.In old time this technique was called screen printing. This technique was also called silk screen printing because silk was used in this process It is also known as serigraphy, and serigraph printing. Synthetic thread are used in printing now a days. The most popular mesh in general use is made of polyester. There are also different types of mesh size which will determine the outcome and look of the finished design on the material.
History : Screen printing was first recognized in appeared form in china during song Dynasty. It was adapted by Japan and may other Asian countries and was furthered by creating newer methods. Screen printing was largely introduced to Western Europe from Asia sometime in the late 18th century, but did not gain large acceptance or
use in Europe until silk mesh was more available for trade from the east and a profitable outlet for the medium discovered.
A group of artists who later formed the National Serigraph Society, including WPA artists Max Arthur Cohn and Anthony Velonis, coined the word Serigraphy in the 1930s to differentiate the artistic application of screen printing from the industrial use of the process.”Serigraphy” is a compound word formed from Latin “sēricum” (silk) and Greek “graphein”
The Printers’ National Environmental Assistance Center says “Screen Printing is arguably the most versatile of all printing processes. Since rudimentary screen printing materials are so affordable and readily available, it has been used frequently in underground settings and subcultures, and the non-professional look of such DIY culture screenprints have become a significant cultural aesthetic seen on movie posters, record album covers, flyers, shirts, commercial fonts in advertising, in artwork and elsewhere.
1960s to present :
American entrepreneur, artist and inventor Michael Vasilantone started to use, develop, and sell a rotatable multi color garment screen printing machine in 1960. Vasilantone later filed for patent on his invention in 1967 granted number 3,427,964 on February 18, 1969.The original machine was manufactured to print logos and team information on bowling garments but soon directed to the new fad of printing on T-shirts. The Vasilantone patent was licensed by multiple manufacturers, the resulting production and boom in printed T-shirts made this garment screen printing machine popular. Screen printing
on garments currently accounts for over half of the screen printing activity in the United States. Graphic screen printing is widely used today to create mass or large batch produced graphics, such as posters or display stands. Full colour prints can be created by printing in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black key). Screen printing lends itself well to printing on canvas. Andy Warhol, Arthur Okamura, Robert Rauschenberg, Roy Lichtenstein, Harry Gottlieb and many other artists have used screen printing as an expression of creativity and artistic vision.
Before printing occurs, the frame and screen must undergo the pre-press process, in which an emulsion is ‘scooped’ across the mesh. Once this emulsion has dried, it is selectively exposed to ultraviolet light, through a film printed with the required design. This hardens the emulsion in the exposed areas but leaves the unexposed parts soft. They are then washed away using a water spray, leaving behind a clean area in the mesh with the identical shape as the desired image, which will allow passage of ink. It is a positive process. A screen is made of a piece of mesh stretched over a frame. The mesh could be made of a synthetic polymer, such as nylon, and a finer and smaller aperture for the mesh would be utilized for a design that requires a higher and more delicate degree of detail. For the mesh to be effective, it must be mounted on a frame and it must be under tension. The frame which holds the mesh could be made of diverse materials, such as wood or aluminum, depending on the sophistication of the machine or the artisan procedure. The tension of the mesh may
be checked by using a tensiometer; a common unit for the measurement of the tension of the mesh is Newton per centimeter (N/cm).
A stencil is formed by blocking off parts of the screen in the negative image of the design to be printed; that is, the open spaces are where the ink will appear on the substrate.
The screen is placed atop a substrate. Ink is placed on top of the screen, and a floodbar is used to push the ink through the holes in the mesh. The operator begins with the fill bar at the rear of the screen and behind a reservoir of ink. The operator lifts the screen to prevent contact with the substrate and then using a slight amount of downward force pulls the fill bar to the front of the screen. This effectively fills the mesh openings with ink and moves the ink reservoir to the front of the screen. The operator then uses a squeegee (rubber blade) to move the mesh down to the substrate and pushes the squeegee to the rear of the screen. The ink that is in the mesh opening is pumped or squeezed by capillary action to the substrate in a controlled and prescribed amount, i.e. the wet ink deposit is proportional to the thickness of the mesh and or stencil. As the squeegee moves toward the rear of the screen the tension of the mesh pulls the mesh up away from the substrate (called snap-off) leaving the ink upon the substrate surface.
In fabric printing, the surface supporting the fabric to be printed (commonly referred to as a pallet) is coated with a wide ‘pallet tape’. This serves to protect the ‘pallet’ from any unwanted ink leaking through the screen and potentially staining the ‘pallet’ or transferring unwanted ink onto the next substrate.
There are three common types of screen printing presses: flat-bed, cylinder, and rotary.
Textile items printed with multicoloured designs often use a wet on wet technique, or colours dried while on the press, while graphic items are allowed to dry between colours that are then printed with another screen and often in a different colour after the product is re-aligned on the press.
Most screens are ready for re-coating at this stage, but sometimes screens will have to undergo a further step in the reclaiming process called dehazing. This additional step removes haze or “ghost images” left behind in the screen once the emulsion has been removed. Ghost images tend to faintly outline the open areas of previous stencils, hence the name. They are the result of ink residue trapped in the mesh, often in the knuckles of the mesh (the points where threads cross). While the public thinks of garments in conjunction with screen printing, the technique is used on tens of thousands of items, including decals, clock and watch faces, balloons, and many other products. The technique has even been adapted for more advanced uses, such as laying down conductors and resistors in multi-layer circuits using thin ceramic layers as the substrate.
Screen printing is more versatile than traditional printing techniques. The surface does not have to be printed under pressure, unlike etching
lithography, and it does not have to be planar. Different inks can be used to work with a variety of materials, such as textiles, ceramics,wood, paper, glass, metal, and plastic. As a result, screen printing is used in many different industries, including:
● Medical devices
● Printed electronics,including circuit board printing
● Product labels
● Signs and displays
● Snowboard graphics
● Textile fabric
● Thick film technology
● Pinball machines